Maryland Divorce Law
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Divorce Residency Essentials to Get Divorce in Maryland
If the grounds for divorce occurred outside of Maryland, one of the spouses must have lived in Maryland for at least one year prior to filing for divorce. Otherwise, either spouse may file for divorce in Maryland. If insanity is the grounds for divorce, the residency requirement is increased to two years. The divorce may be filed for in a county where either spouse resides. [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Section 7-101, 7-103 and Maryland Rules, Rule 9-201].
Reasons for Divorce in Maryland
There are mainly two reasons of divorce in Maryland those are fault and general. In order to file for divorce in Maryland, the proper grounds must be established. Both spouses are involved in establishing these grounds, and both must substantiate and agree upon these, unless the divorcing spouse is trying to prove otherwise to the court.
No-fault reasons for divorce in Maryland include:
- The spouses have voluntarily lived separate and apart for one year without interruption or cohabitation and there is no reasonable expectation of reconciliation or
- The spouses have lived separate and apart without interruption for two years. [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Section 7-103].
General reasons for divorce in Maryland include, in the case of a covenant marriage:
- Deliberate desertion for 12 months with no chance for reconciliation;
- Confinement for incurable insanity of at least three years;
- Conviction of a felony or a misdemeanor with at least a three-year sentence and after one year having been served;
- Cruelty, with no chance for reconciliation; and
- Vicious conduct, with no chance for reconciliation. [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Section 7-103].
Custody of the Children in Maryland
Joint or sole custody may be awarded to either or both parents, based on the best interests of the child. Custody may be denied if the child has been abused by the parent seeking custody. There are no other factors for consideration set out in the statute. The court shall attempt to allow the child to live in the environment and community that is familiar to the child and will generally allow the use and possession of the family home by the person with custody of the child(ren). [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Sections 5-203, 8-207, 8-208, and 9-101 and Maryland Case Law].
Property Distribution in Maryland
Maryland is an “equitable distribution” state. The spouses retain their separate property, including:
- Any gifts and inheritances;
- Property acquired prior to the marriage; and
- Property which is directly traceable to property listed in the aforementioned situations.
Marital property, including retirement benefits and military pensions, is then divided on an equitable basis. The court may order a division of the property, a sale of the property and a division of the proceeds, or a money award as an adjustment of the values.
The following factors are considered:
- The monetary and non-monetary contributions of each spouse to the acquisition of the marital property, including the contribution of each spouse as homemaker;
- The value of each spouse’s property;
- The economic circumstances of each spouse at the time the division of property is to become effective;
- The length of the marriage;
- Whether the property award is instead of or in addition to alimony;
- How and by whom the property was acquired, including any retirement, profit-sharing, or deferred compensation plans;
- The circumstances that contributed to the estrangement of the spouses;
- The age and physical and mental condition of the spouses; and
- Any other factor necessary to do equity and justice between the spouses. [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Sections 8-202, 8-203, and 8-205].
Maryland Spousal Support Guidelines
Either spouse may be awarded alimony based on the following factors:
- The time necessary to acquire sufficient education and training to enable the spouse to find appropriate employment and that spouse’s future earning capacity;
- The standard of living established during the marriage;
- The duration of the marriage;
- The ability of the spouse from whom support is sought to meet his or her needs while meeting those of the spouse seeking support;
- The financial resources of the spouse seeking alimony, including marital property apportioned to such spouse and such spouse’s ability to meet his or her needs independently;
- The comparative financial resources of the spouses, including their comparative earning abilities in the labor market;
- The contribution of each spouse to the marriage, including services rendered in homemaking, childcare, education, and career-building of the other spouse;
- The age of the spouses;
- The physical and emotional conditions of the spouses;
- Any mutual agreement between the spouses concerning financial or service contributions by one spouse with the expectation of future reciprocation or compensation by the other;
- The ability of the spouse seeking alimony to become self-supporting;
- The circumstances which lead to the breakdown of the marriage; and
- Any other factor the court deems just and equitable. [Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Section 11-106].
Maryland Child Support Guidelines
Child support may be awarded. There are specific child support guidelines and charts supplied in the statute. There is a presumption that the amount shown for support in the guidelines is correct. However, the amount may be adjusted up or down if it is shown to be inappropriate or unjust under the circumstances of the case. In determining whether the amount would be unjust, the court may consider:
- The terms of any marital settlement agreement between the parents, including any provisions for payments of marital debts, mortgages, college education expenses, the right to occupy the family home, and any other financial terms and
- The presence in the household of either parent of other children that the parent has a duty to support.
The family home may be awarded to the parent who has custody of a child to enable the child to continue to live in the environment and community that is familiar to the child. A grandparent may be financially responsible for their grandchild if the parent is an unemancipated minor. An official child support worksheet is in Rule 9-206.[Annotated Code of Maryland; Family Law, Sections 8-206, 12-101, 12-201, 12-202, 12-203, and 12-204 and Maryland Rules; Rule 9-206 (Child Support Guidelines)].
Maryland specifically declares that it is in the best interests of children that there be mediated resolutions of parental disputes regarding custody. A court may order an educational seminar if children are involved. In cases where the custody of a child is in dispute, the court may order the parents to attempt to mediate that issue, unless there is a history of physical or sexual abuse of the child. [Maryland Rules, Rule 9-205].